All Publications by Year

Browse all SPIA ex post IAs and some selected CGIAR Center/CRP epIAs by year (latest first) or Enter a year

2010

Publication cover image thumbnail The impacts of CGIAR research: a review of recent evidence.

Publication cover image thumbnail

2010 Renkow, M. & Byerlee, D.

We review evidence on the impacts of CGIAR research published since 2000 in order to provide insights into how successful the CGIAR Centers have been in pursuing the System’s core missions. Our review suggests that the CGIAR research contributions in crop genetic improvement, pest management, natural resources management, and policy research have, in the aggregate, yielded strongly positive impacts relative to investment, and appear likely to continue doing so.

Crop genetic improvement stands out as having had the most profound documented positive impacts. Substantial evidence exists that other research areas within the CGIAR have had large beneficial impacts although often locally and nationally rather than internationally. However, the “right-time, right-place” nature of successful policy research and the relatively limited geographic scale of much natural resource management research often limits the overall scale of impacts of these programmatic thrusts vis-à-vis genetic improvement research.

We conclude that given the evidence available, the CGIAR’s portfolio of research allocations has become overly skewed toward natural resource management and policy research over time. Hence, restoring somewhat the share of resources allocated to crop genetic improvement is warranted. In addition, the CGIAR needs to prioritize impact assessment of resource management and policy research to deepen its understanding of the social and environmental impacts of its work.

Renkow, M. & Byerlee, D. 2010. The impacts of CGIAR research: a review of recent evidence. Food Policy 35: 391–402.

One million hectares of CIP potatoes

2010 ISPC, SPIA

This is a study of the contribution of the International Potato Center (CIP) research on varietal change and potato production, particularly in developing countries. More specifically, the study focuses on adoption of CIP-related varieties in those countries.

Among the study findings:

  • By 2007, breeding programs in 23 surveyed developing countries had released 681 new varieties, 251 of which had their origins in CIP germplasm.
  • In Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda, the aggregate area under CIP-related varieties increased by more than 230,000 hectares between 1997 and 2007, equivalent to one third of the worldwide increase.
  • CIP-related varieties are now planted on more than 100,000 hectares in Peru.
  • In Asia, 10% of the potato-growing area was planted with CIP-related varieties by 2007, up from 3.5% in 1997.
Download from website:

ISPC, SPIA. 2010. One million hectares of CIP potatoes. Impact Brief No. 36


Thiele, G. et al. 2008. Varietal change in potatoes in developing countries and the contribution of the International Potato Center: 1972-2007. Lima, CIP. Working Paper No. 6, 46 pp.

The impact of integrated aquaculture-agriculture on small-scale farms in southern Malawi.

2010 Dey, M. M., F. J. Paraguas, P. Kambewa and D. E. Pemsl.

Sustainable agricultural intensification is an urgent challenge for Sub-Saharan Africa. One potential solution is to rely on local farmers' knowledge for improved management of diverse on-farm resources and integration among various farm enterprises. In this article, we analyze the farm-level impact of one recent example, namely the integrated aquaculture–agriculture (IAA) technologies that have been developed and disseminated in a participatory manner in Malawi. Based on a 2004 survey of 315 respondents (166 adopters and 149 nonadopters), we test the hypothesis that adoption of IAA is associated with improved farm productivity and more efficient use of resources. Estimating a technical inefficiency function shows that IAA farms were significantly more efficient compared to nonadopters. IAA farms also had higher total factor productivity, higher farm income per hectare, and higher returns to family labor.

Download from website:

Agricultural Economics 41(1): 67-79

Publication cover image thumbnail The impact of Bioversity International’s African Leafy Vegetables Programme in Kenya

Publication cover image thumbnail

2010 Gotor E., C. Irungu.

One of the objectives of Bioversity International is to promote income and food security by ensuring that agricultural biodiversity is conserved, characterized and used to improve productivity. The African Leafy Vegetables (ALVs) programme was initiated and implemented to meet this objective. Since the programme was concluded almost five years ago, no impact evaluation has been carried out. Thus the purpose of this study is twofold: to evaluate the role played by Bioversity and its partners in the programme, and to assess the impact of the ALVs programme on the livelihoods of farmers in Kisii, Tharaka, Kilifi and peri-urban Nairobi. The study utilized both secondary and primary data. Primary data was generated between June and July 2007, using 211 randomly selected households stratified into participant and control households. Information from the survey was complemented by focus group discussions. To assess the role of Bioversity and its partners, all the partners, both directly and indirectly related to the project, were identified and interviewed. Bioversity was found to have ably acted as catalyst, facilitator and coordinator of the programme. Results further showed that production, consumption and marketing of ALVs had increased since 1997, women still dominated most of the ALVs activities, and those households that marketed ALVs were relatively well off than those that did not.

Impact Assessment Discussion Paper No.1

2009

Impact of crop improvement and management: winter-sown chickpea in Syria.

2009 Mazid, A., K. Amegbeo, K. Shideed and R.S. Malhotra

International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria. 52 pp. ISBN: 92-9127-203-8.

Assessing the impact of late blight resistant varieties on smallholders’ potato production in the Peruvian Andes.

2009 Salazar, Lina, Paul Winters, Luis Maldonado, Guy Hareau, and Graham Thiele

In this study, we examine whether the adoption of late blight resistant cultivars has an effect on yields and fungicide use. We will focus on the Amarilis variety which is considered more resistant to late blight than other varieties adopted by the farmers in the sample. Using data from three main potato producer states in the Peruvian Andes, significant positive effects on yields and negative effects on fungicide use are found. Specifically, the damage abatement approach provides evidence that Amarilis adoption enhances output maximization mainly through the control of late blight. At the discount rate of 10%, the probable net present value (NPV) of the net benefits accruing to farmers through the adoption of Amarilis amounts to almost 9 million dollars.

Working Paper 2009-5. International Potato Center (CIP), Lima, Peru. 29 p. ISBN: ISSN 0256-8748

Publication cover image thumbnail The economic and poverty impacts of maize research in West and Central Africa

Publication cover image thumbnail

2009 Alenea, A. D. et al.

This article assembles the results of three multicountry surveys on variety performance and adoption patterns to measure the impacts of maize research in West and Central Africa from 1981 to 2005, and uses cost data since 1971 to compute social rates of return on public investments in maize research in the region. Adoption of modern varieties increased from less than 5% of the maize area in the 1970s to about 60% in 2005, yielding an aggregate rate of return on research and development (R&D) investment of 43%. The estimated number of people moved out of poverty through adoption of new maize varieties rose gradually in the 1980s to more than one million people per year since the mid 1990s. Over half of these impacts can be attributed to international maize research at IITA and CIMMYT. The article concludes with a discussion of strategic options to enhance the impacts of maize research in the region.

Download from website:

Alenea, A. D. et al. 2009. The economic and poverty impacts of maize research in West and Central Africa. Agricultural Economics 40: 535–550


ISPC, SPIA. 2010. Improved maize benefits millions of Africa's poor. Impact Brief No. 34

Assessing impacts of maize research through a livelihoods lens: findings and lessons from the hill regions of Mexico and Nepal

2009 La Rovere, R., Mathema, S., Dixon, J., Aquino Mercado, P., Gurung, K.

A livelihood approach to impact assessment (IA), by integrating livelihood and economic analyses, permits a more comprehensive assessment than does conventional IA. CIMMYT recently completed two studies on the impacts of maize research in the hill regions of Mexico and Nepal to assess the impacts of this research, examine changes in farmers' livelihoods that resulted from the research projects and learn how such investments can have more impact in the future. This paper compares and contrasts the methodologies and results of the two studies, arriving at the key lessons on the impacts of research and of the international public goods generated, and on what was learned so as to better target and enhance maize research to improve the livelihoods of farmers in the future.

Download from website:

Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, volume 27, number 3, September 2009. 26 pp.

Publication cover image thumbnail The impacts of aquaculture development on food security: lessons from Bangladesh.

Publication cover image thumbnail

2009 Murshed-e-Jahan, K., M. Ahmed, B. Belton.

Fish contribute a significant amount of animal protein to the diets of people in Bangladesh, about 63% of which comes from aquatic animals. In Bangladesh, fish is mainly derived from two sources: capture and culture. Aquaculture has shown tremendous growth in the last two decades, exhibiting by about 10% average annual growth in production. Capture fisheries, although still the major source of supply of fish, have become static or are in decline due to over-fishing and environmental degradation, and it is now believed that aquaculture has the greatest potential to meet the growing demand for fish from the increasing population. At present, aquaculture production accounts for about one-third of the total fish production in Bangladesh. This paper examines the impact of an aquaculture development project in Bangladesh on food security, with particular emphasis on the poor. The analysis shows a positive impact of aquaculture development on employment, income and consumption. A number of implications for policy in areas that might strengthen these outcomes are discussed and recommendations are presented.

Download from website:

Aquaculture Research 2009, 1-15.

Publication cover image thumbnail The Impact of Fodder Shrubs on Milk Production and Income among Smallholder Dairy Farmers in East Africa and the Role of Research Undertaken by the World Agroforestry Centre.

Publication cover image thumbnail

2009 Place, F., Roothaert, R., Maina, L., Franzel, S., Sinja, J., and J. Wanjiku.

The objective of this study is twofold, to demonstrate (1) the effects of fodder shrubs on milk production and their value at the household and regional level and (2) the contribution of research by the World Agroforestry Centre toward strengthening the impact of fodder shrubs. The study is a synthesis of previous studies related to dissemination, adoption and impact combined with two new analyses, one quantitatively measuring the impact of the shrubs through econometric analysis and the other a qualitative analysis to better understand constraints on adoption and gender issues related to participation and control of benefits from fodder shrubs. Among the study findings are that fodder shrubs have been widely adopted in East Africa, by an estimated 205,000 smallholder dairy farmers by 2005. Women were active in planting shrubs, as monitoring found almost half of planters to be women. Several studies have confirmed that shrubs do have an impact on milk production. While feeding trials have found that 1 kilogram of calliandra increases milk production by 0.6–0.8 kilograms, a new survey of farmers’ perceptions in Kenya found the effect to be about half as large after controlling for the effects of breeds, season and other feeds. Whether the effect is the lower or higher estimate, the overall impact of the shrubs in terms of additional net income from milk is high, at US$19.7 million to $29.6 million in Kenya alone over the past 15 years.

Occasional Paper 12, World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya.

Publication cover image thumbnail The impact of Integrated Pest Management information dissemination methods on insecticide use and efficiency: Evidence from rice producers in South Vietnam.

Publication cover image thumbnail

2009 Rejesus RM, Palis FG, Lapitan AV, Chi TTN, Hossain M.

This article examines the impact of two Integrated Pest Management information dissemination approaches on insecticide use and efficiency of Vietnamese rice farmers. Specifically, we investigate the impact of Farmer Field Schools (FFS) and “No Early Spray” (NES) mass media campaigns by utilizing econometric approaches that control for endogeneity and selection problems. Our results suggest that farmers exposed to FFS and NES information are more technically efficient than control farmers who have not been exposed to information from FFS or NES. However, only FFS farmers, not NES farmers, seem to have significantly reduced their insecticide use relative to non-FFS or non-NES control farmers.

Download from website:

Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy 31 (4): 814-833.

Publication cover image thumbnail The impact of agricultural research on productivity and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa.

Publication cover image thumbnail

2009 Alene, A.D. and O. Coulibaly.

While it is widely recognized that agricultural research is a key driver of broad-based technological change in agriculture that benefits the poor in many different ways, little is known about its aggregate impacts on productivity growth and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Using a polynomial distributed lag structure for agricultural research within a simultaneous system of equations framework, this paper first demonstrates that agricultural research contributes significantly to productivity growth in SSA. Productivity growth is again shown to raise per capita incomes, with income increases finally having significant poverty-reducing effects. With an aggregate rate of return of 55%, the payoffs to agricultural research are also impressive. Agricultural research currently reduces the number of poor by 2.3 million or 0.8% annually. While the actual impacts are not large enough to more than offset the poverty-increasing effects of population growth and environmental degradation, the potential impacts of agricultural research are far greater. Apart from low research investments, SSA faces several constraints outside the research system that hinder realization of potential research benefits. The results show that doubling research investments in SSA would reduce poverty by 9% annually. However, this would not be realized without more efficient extension, credit, and input supply systems.

Download from website:

Food Policy, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 198-209

Publication cover image thumbnail The impact of a nutrition and health programme on the socio-economic status and food access of households in Suba District, Kenya.

Publication cover image thumbnail

2009 King’olla B, Ohiokpehai O, Mbithe D.

Poor nutrition and ill health affect the productivity, livelihoods and food access of a household.This study investigated the impact of a nutrition and health programme on the socioeconomic status andfood access of households in Suba district, Kenya.Methodology and results: Action research design was utilized that involved comparison of the baseline andimpact evaluation results after a three-year intervention period. A sample size of 291 randomly selectedhouseholds from a community whose main economic activity is fishing was used. Data collectioninstruments included a structured questionnaire, focus group discussion guide and an observationchecklist. Data was analyzed using SPSS computer package version 16. A P-value of <0.05 wasconsidered significant. Over a three-year period, household size increased from 4.8 to 5.5. Education levelsimproved insignificantly (P>0.05) while income levels improved with monthly maternal income improvingfrom a minimum of Ksh. 100 to 300 (1.5 to 4.0 US dollars). About 89.6 and 3.4% of households obtainedfood from own produce and purchase combined with assistance, respectively. About 51.2, 3 and 64%reported to consider their households food secure when there was clear moonlight as the fishermen in theirhouseholds were assured of a good fish catch, at the end of the month when households had some cashincome, and if they harvested between 2 to 5 bags of maize (each 90kg), per season, respectively. Morethan a third (32.6%) of the respondents were involved in small business while 50.9 and 16.5% wereinvolved in actual fishing and farming, respectively. Only 6.2% of the respondents had access to creditfacilities. After 3 years, food consumption patterns did not change significantly from the baseline. Sanitationand morbidity patterns did not improve significantly at the households albeit with nutrition and healtheducation, with 27.5 and 30.9% not having latrines and refuse disposal bins/pits, respectively. Thehouseholds bathed, washed and drew drinking water from the same point in Lake Victoria.Conclusion and potential application of findings: Nutrition and health programmes have potential to improvethe socioeconomic status and household food access depending on content coverage of the programmes.

Journal of Applied Biosciences. Vol. 21. pp. 1226-1236.

Publication cover image thumbnail The economic and poverty impacts of maize research in West and Central Africa.

Publication cover image thumbnail

2009 Arega D. Alene, Abebe Menkir, S. O. Ajala, B. Badu-Apraku, A. S. Olanrewaju, V. M. Manyong, Abdou Ndiaye

This article assembles the results of three multicountry surveys on variety performance and adoption patterns to measure the impacts of maize research in West and Central Africa from 1981 to 2005, and uses cost data since 1971 to compute social rates of return on public investments in maize research in the region. Adoption of modern varieties increased from less than 5% of the maize area in the 1970s to about 60% in 2005, yielding an aggregate rate of return on research and development (R&D) investment of 43%. The estimated number of people moved out of poverty through adoption of new maize varieties rose gradually in the 1980s to more than one million people per year since the mid 1990s. Over half of these impacts can be attributed to international maize research at IITA and CIMMYT. The article concludes with a discussion of strategic options to enhance the impacts of maize research in the region.

Agricultural Economics 40 (2009) 535–550

Publication cover image thumbnail The Impact of Lentil Improvement Research: the Case of Bangladesh and Ethiopia

Publication cover image thumbnail

2009 Aw-Hassan, Aden A., Senait Regassa, Q. M. Shafiqul Islam and Ashutosh Sarker

Download from website:

In Erskine, W., F. Muehlbauer, A. Sarker and B. Sharma (Editors). The Lentil: Botany, Production and Uses. CABI

Publication cover image thumbnail Promoting a Versatile but yet Minor Crop: Soybean in the Farming Systems of Kenya.

Publication cover image thumbnail

2009 Chianu J N, Ohiokpehai O, Vanlauwe B, Adesina A, De Groote H, and Sanginga N.

Crop promotion is critical for market creation and rural growth in Africa. How to achieve this for crops, other than major staples (e.g., maize) and traditional export crops (e.g., tea), remains a problem since most African countries tend to focus policy attention to major staples and traditional export crops. Using a three-tier-approach, developed based on successful soybean promotion strategies in Nigeria and Zimbabwe, this study assesses the effect of market development at household-level, communitylevel, and linking farmers’ groups to industrial processors on sustainable soybean promotion in Kenya. Results show an increase in farmers’ confidence to produce, process, and consume more soybeans than before. Trained farmers’ groups are also developing new soybean products for cash income, a process that has proved to be very profitable. Net returns have been increased from four to 14 times for some products. Selected farmers’ groups are supplying large-scale processors with soybean grains, substituting some imports.

Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. Volume 10, No. 4. pp. 324-344.

Publication cover image thumbnail Linking small holders to the New Agricultural Economy: An evaluation of the Plataformas Program in Ecuador.

Publication cover image thumbnail

2009 Cavatassi, Romina, Mario Gonzalez, Paul Winters, Jorge Andrade-Piedra, Patricio Espinoza and Graham Thiele

This paper analyzes the impact of participation in multi-stakeholder platforms (Plataformas) aimed at linking smallholder potato farmers to the market in the mountain region of Ecuador. It describes and evaluates the Plataformas’ program to determine whether it has been successful in linking farmers to higher-value markets and the effects that such connections have brought, particularly with regard to farmers’ welfare and to the environment. The analysis is run comparing a set of different and carefully constructed control groups to beneficiaries and using various specifications. Results are strongly consistent across the different specifications and are sound across the counterfactuals, suggesting impacts are adequately identified. Findings suggest that the program was successful in improving the welfare of beneficiaries, while potential negative environmental impacts, particularly with relation to agrobiodiversity and use of agrochemicals seem not to be a concern. Mechanisms through which impacts have been achieved are analyzed. Little spillover effects are found.

ESA Working Paper Nº 09-06. FAO, Agricultural Development Economics Division. Rome, Italy.

Publication cover image thumbnail Impacts of the CFC-FAO-ICRISAT Livelihood improvement project in Asia: Region 1 – India.

Publication cover image thumbnail

2009 Parthasarathy Rao P, Ravinder Reddy Ch, Ashok S Alur, Belum VS Reddy and CLL Gowda

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. Patancheru- 502324, Andhra Pradesh, India: 128 pp.

Publication cover image thumbnail Leaving the Plow Behind: Zero-tillage rice-wheat cultivation in the Indo-Gangetic Plains.

Publication cover image thumbnail

2009 Erenstein, O.

In: David J. Spielman and Rajul Pandya-Lorch (eds.) Millions Fed: Proven successes in agricultural development. pp 65-70. Washington DC: IFPRI

Publication cover image thumbnail Economic gains of improving soil fertility and water holding capacity with clay application: the impact of soil remediation research in northeast Thailand.

Publication cover image thumbnail

2009 Saleth, Rathinasamy Maria; Inocencio, A.; Noble, Andrew, D.; Ruaysoongnern, S.

Declining productivity of agricultural soils in Northeast Thailand is a challenge facing land managers and farmers. A program was initiated in 2002 to investigate the potential role of incorporating clay-based materials into degraded soils as a means of enhancing productivity. This research report attempts to provide an ex-post assessment of the field level impact and economic viability of this approach, using the empirically derived estimates of the average income impacts that the application of bentonite or clay technology has generated among farm communities in Northeast Thailand. From an exclusive IWMI perspective, the impact evaluation suggests that the program has a net present value (NPV) of US$0.41 million with a benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of 2.44 for the sample, and a NPV of US$21 million with a BCR of 75 for the region.

International Water Management Institute (IWMI) Research Report 130, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Publication cover image thumbnail Economic impacts of soil fertility management research in West Africa.

Publication cover image thumbnail

2009 Akinola, A.A., A.D. Alene, R. Adeyemo, D. Sanogo, and A.S. Olanrewaju

This paper assesses the potential economic impacts of balanced nutrient management systems technology options: BNMS-manure, which combines inorganic fertilizer and organic manure, and BNMS-rotation, which is maize-soybean rotation, in maize-based systems in the northern Guinea savanna areas of Nigeria, Ghana, Togo and Benin. The economic surplus analysis suggested that BNMS-manure research and extension could achieve returns ranging from 17 to 25% and a maximum adoption of 24 to 48%, for the conservative and base scenario respectively; and that BNMS-rotation research and extension could achieve returns ranging from 35 to 43% and a maximum adoption of 20 to 40%, for the conservative and base scenario respectively. Our results were consistent with earlier economic analyses which showed that BNMS-rotation was more productive, profitable and acceptable to farmers than BNMS-manure. It may be difficult to achieve large-scale adoption of BNMS-manure because the increases in yields are smaller and markets for manure are missing.

African Journal of Agricultural & Resource Economics 3(2): 159–175.

Publication cover image thumbnail Impacts of CIMMYT’s formal training activities linked to long-term trials in the field of Conservation Agriculture: 1996-2006.

Publication cover image thumbnail

2009 Svitakova, J., Kosina, P., La Rovere, R.

Conservation agriculture (CA) combines the principles of a) reduced tillage systems that feature minimal soil disturbance; b) retention of adequate levels of crop residues and cover on the soil surface, to protect the soil from water/wind erosion, water run-off and evaporation, improve water productivity and enhance soil properties; and c) economically viable, diversifi ed crop rotations to help mitigate weed, disease, and pest problems. These principles are applicable to a wide range of crop production systems under low-yielding, dry rainfed and high-yielding irrigated conditions. CIMMYT has offered courses on CA for many years that link a multidisciplinary approach to sustainable crop management with the experience of agronomists leading projects in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. This report summarizes the strengths, weaknesses, outcomes, and impacts of the CIMMYT CA course titled “Bed planting and zero till conservation agriculture technologies for irrigated and rainfed wheat and maize production systems.” During the 10-year span covered by this study, the course was held 16 times under the leadership of CIMMYT agronomist Dr. Ken Sayre. Information presented in this study was gathered from two surveys; one designed for past course participants (scientists attending four-to-fi ve-week training courses in CIMMYT facilities in Mexico). The other survey was prepared for their immediate research leaders and supervisors in the area of agronomy/conservation agriculture.

28 p. CIMMYT, Mexico: D.F.

Publication cover image thumbnail Benefits of adopting improved forages in smallholder farms in Central America: An ex post analysis.

Publication cover image thumbnail

2009 Holmann F, Argel P, Perez E.

The area planted to improved pastures increased in all countries, ranging from 12% in Guatemala to 105% in Nicaragua. Except for Guatemala (where the animal inventory decreased almost 11% due to Hurricane Stan), all countries expanded their herds (between 34% and 41%) in practically all animal categories, not only adult cows. On-farm milk production during the dry season increased 9% in Guatemala, 47% in Honduras and Nicaragua, and 71% in Costa Rica. Milk production during the rainy season remained practically invariable in Guatemala, but increased 48% in Honduras, 19% in Nicaragua, and 53% in Costa Rica. On the other hand, these increases in milk production were also favored by the rise in milk prices in all countries, ranging from 7% in Nicaragua to 36% in Costa Rica during the dry season and from 4% in Nicaragua to 36% in Costa Rica during the rainy season. Beef production accordingly increased 15% in Nicaragua, 46% in Honduras, and 74% in Costa Rica. similar to the trend observed in milk production, beef production did not increase in Guatemala because producers had to sell animals to recover from the losses caused by Hurricane Stan. Likewise, at the end of the project, producers in all countries received higher prices as compared with those obtained at the beginning of the project. The price of beef paid to the producer increased 9% in Guatemala, 4% in Honduras, 5% in Nicaragua, and 11% in Costa Rica. Because of these significant increases in annual milk and meat production, major increases were also observed in the annual net income of farms, reaching 32% in Guatemala, 288% in Honduras, 177% in Nicaragua, and 238% in Costa Rica. These extraordinary increases in net income can be attributed to three factors: (1) the higher milk price in 2007 as compared with that of 2003; (2) higher production due to the better diet; and (3) increased production due to the higher stocking rate allowed because of the adoption of and increase in area sown to improved forages. The increase in the net income of these producers has triggered an increase in the economic returns to family labor, as compared with the commercial value of a day’s wages. Therefore, the returns to family labor in Guatemala went from 3.1 times the value of the minimum wage in 2003 to 6.0 times that value in 2007, representing a 97% increase. In Honduras, the returns to family labor went from 2.9 times the minimum wage in 2003 to 9.8 times that value in 2007, representing a 238% increase. Similarly, in Nicaragua these returns represented a 104% increase and in Costa Rica a 200% increase.

Download from website:

Livestock Research for Rural Development. Vol. 21, No. 2. pp. 1-10

2008

Policy-oriented Research in the CGIAR: assessing the impact

2008 CGIAR, SPIA

Building on an earlier exploratory study, in 2007–08 the CGIAR’s Standing Panel on Impact Assessment (SPIA) undertook an initiative in collaboration with seven CGIAR centers to augment the evidence of policy-oriented research (POR) impacts within the CGIAR system and to further the development of methodologies in this challenging area of impact assessment. Seven case studies were commissioned. This impact brief describes the major results that emerged from the overall study. <br> 

For the full study see: CGIAR Science Council. 2008. Impact Assessment of Policy-Oriented Research in the CGIAR: evidence and insights from case studies. A study commissioned by the Science Council's Standing Panel on Impact Assessment, CGIAR Science Council Secretariat: Rome, Italy. 99 pp.<br>

Walker ,T., Ryan, J. & Kelley, T. 2010. Impact assessment of policy-oriented international agricultural research: evidence and insights from case studies. World Development 38 (10): 1453–1461.<br>

For the scoping study report see: CGIAR Science Council. 2006. Impact assessment of policy-oriented research in the CGIAR: a scoping study report. A study commissioned by the Science Council's Standing Panel on Impact Assessment, CGIAR Science Council Secretariat: Rome, Italy. 39 pp.


Download from website:

CGIAR, SPIA. 2008. Policy-oriented Research in the CGIAR: assessing the impact. Science Council Brief No. 23


An Assessment of the Impact of Agricultural Research in South Asia since the Green Revolution

2008 Hazel, P.B.R.

This study critically reviews and assesses the large body of evidence on the impacts of agricultural research by the CGIAR and its partners in South Asia. The long history of research, the extensive databases available and the vast literature on impacts that exist in this region provided a fertile ground for this study, which aimed to systematically examine and understand the complexities of how research has led to outputs, uptake, outcomes and impacts, and the distributional consequences of these. Implications and lessons are drawn from this synthesis of the literature to address the issues of the gross (positive and negative) and net payoffs from past investments by the CGIAR and partners (the accountability question), as well as to help shape current and future priorities (the institutional learning question). The study also identifies the knowledge gaps and researchable questions that should improve our understanding of opportunities for, and impediments to, agricultural technology enhancement as a strategy for achieving future CGIAR goals, namely poverty alleviation, food security, and environmental sustainability. Impact Brief No. 21 for this study is titled "Impact of agricultural research in South Asia since the Green Revolution" and is available on the site.
Download from website:

Hazel, P.B.R. 2008. An assessment of the impact of agricultural research in South Asia since the Green Revolution. Science Council Secretariat, Rome, Italy

Impact of agricultural research in South Asia since the Green Revolution

2008 CGIAR, SPIA

Impact Brief on the study that critically reviews and assesses the large body of evidence on the impacts of agricultural research by the CGIAR and its partners in South Asia. The long history of research, the extensive databases available and the vast literature on impacts that exist in this region provided a fertile ground for this study, which aimed to systematically examine and understand the complexities of how research has led to outputs, uptake, outcomes and impacts, and the distributional consequences of these. Implications and lessons are drawn from this synthesis of the literature to address the issues of the gross (positive and negative) and net payoffs from past investments by the CGIAR and partners (the accountability question), as well as to help shape current and future priorities (the institutional learning question). The study also identifies the knowledge gaps and researchable questions that should improve our understanding of opportunities for, and impediments to, agricultural technology enhancement as a strategy for achieving future CGIAR goals, namely poverty alleviation, food security, and environmental sustainability. The full version of the study on which this Brief is based: Hazel, P.B.R. 2008. An assessment of the impact of agricultural research in South Asia since the Green Revolution. Science Council Secretariat, Rome, Italy.

CGIAR, SPIA. 2008. Impact of agricultural research in South Asia since the Green Revolution. Science Council Brief No. 21

Publication cover image thumbnail State of the art in impact assessment of policy-oriented international agricultural research

Publication cover image thumbnail

2008 Raitzer,D.A. and J.G. Ryan

Policy-oriented research (POR) represents an increasing share of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research's (CGIAR's) portfolio. A literature inventory finds 24 studies of the diffusion, influence or impact of this research, of which only three assess impact. There are many influences behind policy formulation, through which research insights permeate, if influential. Hence, attribution and counterfactual difficulties have led many assessments to focus only on analysis of the processes of creating policy influence, rather than also assessing impacts from resulting policy changes. To satisfy CGIAR investor expectations for documented impacts, approaches are proposed for 'demand-led' and 'supply-led' POR case studies.

Download from website:

Evidence & Policy 4 (1):5-30.

Impact assessment of policy-oriented research in the CGIAR: evidence and insights from case studies

2008 CGIAR, SPIA

Policy-oriented Research (POR) is research that aims to influence the decisions made by governments or other institutions that are embodied in laws, regulations, or activities that affect people’s lives and livelihoods. POR has recently accounted for an increasing share of research expenditures in the CGIAR, rising from 9 percent in 1995 to about 18 percent currently. Yet it is a theme where evidence of impacts is scant.

The Science Council’s study of POR was conducted at the request of several members of the CGIAR. This is a collection of seven case studies, selected from a competitive call of 14 submissions. Five of the seven case studies were able to measure the economic impacts of the policy changes associates with the POR and the returns on the POR investments themselves, although none was able to translate these impacts into quantified effects of poverty reduction or food security. In this respect, these impact assessments are not so different from most others undertaken in the CGIAR.

Adding together the estimates economic impacts of POR from the five relevant case studies gives us a cumulative NPV of about US$ 750 million. If we add this amount to the US$200 million in benefits estimated for three cases cited in the scoping study report, we arrive at a current estimate of US$950 million as NPV of documented benefits from POR in the CGIAR system. These benefits stand in comparison with US$800 million of cumulative investment in POR in the CGIAR up to 2004, a figure which has probably surpassed US$900 million in 2008. However, if donors are to be convinced that the CGIAR’s increasing emphasis on POR over the past 20 years is justified, further PORIA studies are needed to provide a more comprehensive estimate of the benefits of POR across the entire CGIAR system.

CGIAR Science Council. 2008. Impact assessment of Policy-Oriented Research in the CGIAR: evidence and insights from case studies. A study commissioned by the Science Council's Standing Panel on Impact Assessment, CGIAR Science Council Secretariat: Rome, Italy. 99 pp.
CGIAR Science Council. 2006. Impact assessment of policy-oriented research in the CGIAR: a scoping study report. A study commissioned by the Science Council's Standing Panel on Impact Assessment, CGIAR Science Council Secretariat: Rome, Italy. 39 pp.
CGIAR, SPIA. 2008. Policy-oriented Research in the CGIAR: assessing the impact. Science Council Brief No. 23

Varietal change in potatoes in developing countries and the contribution of the International Potato Center: 1972-2007

2008 Thiele, G. et al.

Download from website:

Thiele, G. et al. 2008. Varietal change in potatoes in developing countries and the contribution of the International Potato Center: 1972-2007. Lima, CIP. Working Paper No. 6, 46 pp.

Publication cover image thumbnail Pesticide use in the Philippines: assessing the contribution of IRRI’s research to reduced health costs

Publication cover image thumbnail

2008 CGIAR, SPIA

In response to growing health concerns, the Philippine government instigated a suite of pesticide regulatory policies and implementing guidelines and launched Integrated Pest Management as a National Program to promote a safer and an ecologically sound approach to pest control. The main aim of this study is to measure the economic benefits of the 1992–96 pesticide policy package. Specifically, the study examines those factors that influenced the government’s decision to change the policies on pesticides and pest control practices and attributes these benefits to the key players, with a focus on relevant International Rice Research Institute’s (IRRI) policy-orientated research.

Download from website:

CGIAR, SPIA. 2008. Pesticide use in the Philippines: assessing the contribution of IRRI’s research to reduced health costs. Science Council Brief No. 29